American Journal of Modern Physics

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The Thermodynamics Cycles with a Reversible Chemical Reaction

Received: 31 March 2023    Accepted: 17 April 2023    Published: 9 June 2023
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Abstract

The relevance: In the modern world, there is an urgent need for the efficient use of all possible heat sources for the subsequent production of mechanical work or electrical energy. The gradual depletion of fossil fuels on the planet is bringing humanity closer to a large-scale energy crisis. Since the conversion of heat into freely convertible work or electrical energy is possible with the help of heat engines, it is necessary to look for new ways to improve them. One of these ways can be the use of thermodynamic cycles with reversible chemical reactions. The main aim of the investigation of thermodynamic cycles with reversible chemical reactions, comparison and analysis of the results obtained and formulation of conclusions. Object: thermodynamic cycles of Carnot, Brighton and Stirling; mixtures of gases capable of changing their composition as a result of a reversible chemical reaction; chemical work. Methods: solving the problem of finding the efficiency coefficient using analytical methods solving the problem of finding the efficiency coefficient using analytical methods. Results: A Brighton, Carnot and Stirling thermodynamic cycles is considered in which the working substance is a chemically reacting gas with molar weight and heat capacity changing as a result of a reversible chemical reaction. By way of example, the reactions N2 + 3H2 →2NH3 and CO + 2H2 ↔ CH3OH is considered. For a constant heat supply, the cycles is characterized by the lower (Tlow) and upper (Ttop) temperature boundaries of existence; between these boundaries, the efficiency η can change from 0 to 1. Such peculiar properties are manifested because of two factors: reversibility of the chemical reaction and the special role of the chemical work in the conversion of heat into mechanical work, which minimizes the heat loss to the surrounding space in a closed thermodynamic cycles. The possibility of achieving a thermal efficiency in them equal to 1 in a limited temperature range does not depend on the type of cycle. The value of efficiency in Carnot and Stirling machines depends on the method of heat supply and removal at isotherms. Each of the Carnot, Stirling and Brighton cycles is characterized, respectively, by its parameter αC, αSt and αBr, which determines the condition for achieving efficiency η = 1. Heat engines operating on thermodynamic cycles with reversible chemical reactions are most efficient when using low potential heat sources.

DOI 10.11648/j.ajmp.20231202.11
Published in American Journal of Modern Physics (Volume 12, Issue 2, March 2023)
Page(s) 14-20
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Thermodynamic Cycle, Reversible Chemical Reaction, Chemical Work, Efficiency

References
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[6] T. Kanda, M. Sato, T. Kimura, and H. Asakawa. (2018). Expander and Coolant-Bleed Cycles of Methane-Fueled Rocket Engines. Trans. Jpn. Soc. Aeronaut. Space Sci. 61 (3), 106 (2018). https://doi.org/10.2322/tjsass.61.106
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[14] K. O. Sabdenov. (2021). The thermodynamic Brayton cycle with a reversible chemical reaction. Tech. Phys. 66, 1275–1283. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1063784221090164
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    Kanysh Sabdenov. (2023). The Thermodynamics Cycles with a Reversible Chemical Reaction. American Journal of Modern Physics, 12(2), 14-20. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajmp.20231202.11

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    Kanysh Sabdenov. The Thermodynamics Cycles with a Reversible Chemical Reaction. Am. J. Mod. Phys. 2023, 12(2), 14-20. doi: 10.11648/j.ajmp.20231202.11

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    Kanysh Sabdenov. The Thermodynamics Cycles with a Reversible Chemical Reaction. Am J Mod Phys. 2023;12(2):14-20. doi: 10.11648/j.ajmp.20231202.11

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  • @article{10.11648/j.ajmp.20231202.11,
      author = {Kanysh Sabdenov},
      title = {The Thermodynamics Cycles with a Reversible Chemical Reaction},
      journal = {American Journal of Modern Physics},
      volume = {12},
      number = {2},
      pages = {14-20},
      doi = {10.11648/j.ajmp.20231202.11},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajmp.20231202.11},
      eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ajmp.20231202.11},
      abstract = {The relevance: In the modern world, there is an urgent need for the efficient use of all possible heat sources for the subsequent production of mechanical work or electrical energy. The gradual depletion of fossil fuels on the planet is bringing humanity closer to a large-scale energy crisis. Since the conversion of heat into freely convertible work or electrical energy is possible with the help of heat engines, it is necessary to look for new ways to improve them. One of these ways can be the use of thermodynamic cycles with reversible chemical reactions. The main aim of the investigation of thermodynamic cycles with reversible chemical reactions, comparison and analysis of the results obtained and formulation of conclusions. Object: thermodynamic cycles of Carnot, Brighton and Stirling; mixtures of gases capable of changing their composition as a result of a reversible chemical reaction; chemical work. Methods: solving the problem of finding the efficiency coefficient using analytical methods solving the problem of finding the efficiency coefficient using analytical methods. Results: A Brighton, Carnot and Stirling thermodynamic cycles is considered in which the working substance is a chemically reacting gas with molar weight and heat capacity changing as a result of a reversible chemical reaction. By way of example, the reactions N2 + 3H2 →2NH3 and CO + 2H2 ↔ CH3OH is considered. For a constant heat supply, the cycles is characterized by the lower (Tlow) and upper (Ttop) temperature boundaries of existence; between these boundaries, the efficiency η can change from 0 to 1. Such peculiar properties are manifested because of two factors: reversibility of the chemical reaction and the special role of the chemical work in the conversion of heat into mechanical work, which minimizes the heat loss to the surrounding space in a closed thermodynamic cycles. The possibility of achieving a thermal efficiency in them equal to 1 in a limited temperature range does not depend on the type of cycle. The value of efficiency in Carnot and Stirling machines depends on the method of heat supply and removal at isotherms. Each of the Carnot, Stirling and Brighton cycles is characterized, respectively, by its parameter αC, αSt and αBr, which determines the condition for achieving efficiency η = 1. Heat engines operating on thermodynamic cycles with reversible chemical reactions are most efficient when using low potential heat sources.},
     year = {2023}
    }
    

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  • TY  - JOUR
    T1  - The Thermodynamics Cycles with a Reversible Chemical Reaction
    AU  - Kanysh Sabdenov
    Y1  - 2023/06/09
    PY  - 2023
    N1  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajmp.20231202.11
    DO  - 10.11648/j.ajmp.20231202.11
    T2  - American Journal of Modern Physics
    JF  - American Journal of Modern Physics
    JO  - American Journal of Modern Physics
    SP  - 14
    EP  - 20
    PB  - Science Publishing Group
    SN  - 2326-8891
    UR  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajmp.20231202.11
    AB  - The relevance: In the modern world, there is an urgent need for the efficient use of all possible heat sources for the subsequent production of mechanical work or electrical energy. The gradual depletion of fossil fuels on the planet is bringing humanity closer to a large-scale energy crisis. Since the conversion of heat into freely convertible work or electrical energy is possible with the help of heat engines, it is necessary to look for new ways to improve them. One of these ways can be the use of thermodynamic cycles with reversible chemical reactions. The main aim of the investigation of thermodynamic cycles with reversible chemical reactions, comparison and analysis of the results obtained and formulation of conclusions. Object: thermodynamic cycles of Carnot, Brighton and Stirling; mixtures of gases capable of changing their composition as a result of a reversible chemical reaction; chemical work. Methods: solving the problem of finding the efficiency coefficient using analytical methods solving the problem of finding the efficiency coefficient using analytical methods. Results: A Brighton, Carnot and Stirling thermodynamic cycles is considered in which the working substance is a chemically reacting gas with molar weight and heat capacity changing as a result of a reversible chemical reaction. By way of example, the reactions N2 + 3H2 →2NH3 and CO + 2H2 ↔ CH3OH is considered. For a constant heat supply, the cycles is characterized by the lower (Tlow) and upper (Ttop) temperature boundaries of existence; between these boundaries, the efficiency η can change from 0 to 1. Such peculiar properties are manifested because of two factors: reversibility of the chemical reaction and the special role of the chemical work in the conversion of heat into mechanical work, which minimizes the heat loss to the surrounding space in a closed thermodynamic cycles. The possibility of achieving a thermal efficiency in them equal to 1 in a limited temperature range does not depend on the type of cycle. The value of efficiency in Carnot and Stirling machines depends on the method of heat supply and removal at isotherms. Each of the Carnot, Stirling and Brighton cycles is characterized, respectively, by its parameter αC, αSt and αBr, which determines the condition for achieving efficiency η = 1. Heat engines operating on thermodynamic cycles with reversible chemical reactions are most efficient when using low potential heat sources.
    VL  - 12
    IS  - 2
    ER  - 

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Author Information
  • Energy and Transport Department, L. N. Gumilev Eurasian National University, Astana, Kazakhstan

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